Michael E. Summers
Professor of Planetary Science and Astronomy
Director, School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences (SPACS)
School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences (SPACS)
Science & Tech I, Room 303B
George Mason University
4400 University Drive
Fairfax, VA 22030-4444
Phone: (703) 993-3971
Fax: (703) 993-1269
Michael E. Summers – Research Summary
Prof. Michael E. Summers is a planetary scientist who specializes in the study of a variety of chemical and dynamical processes in planetary atmospheres. His work is primarily theoretical in nature, but he serves on several space mission science teams in the role of science planning and in the interpretation of spacecraft observations.
Dr. Summers’ planetary research has dealt with the structure and evolution of the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, Io, Titan, Triton, Uranus, Pluto and its moon Charon. He is a member of the Science Team of the New Horizons mission to Pluto/Charon and the Kuiper Belt that was launched in January, 2006 and performed a flyby of Jupiter in February 2007. His research on the Pluto-Charon system focuses on understanding Pluto’s atmospheric structure and its rapid loss to space. His most recent work deals with the gravitational capture of Pluto’s expanding atmosphere by its moon Charon. His current research on the atmosphere of Mars is addressing some of the questions posed by the possible existence of subsurface life and the release of metabolic by-products that would serve as biomarkers. He is also developing a theoretical model of the early evolution of the Martian atmosphere. He is co-investigator on the NASA Langley Mars Airplane proposal that was a finalist for the first Mars Scout Mission.
Dr. Summers’ work on Earth’s atmosphere has dealt with middle atmospheric ozone chemistry, the chemistry and dynamics of trace gases such as methane, water vapor, and carbon monoxide, heterogeneous chemistry on meteor dust, the influence of solar variability on the state of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and polar mesospheric clouds and their connection to climate. Dr. Summers’ current work on the terrestrial atmosphere deals with the sources and sinks of middle atmospheric water vapor and the role of water in the formation and evolution of Noctilucent Clouds. He is a member of the science team of the AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere) Small Explorer mission that was launched in April, 2007 as the first dedicated mission to study the role of these high altitude clouds as indicators of global climate change.
- Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, Planetary Science and Astronomy, 1985.
- M.S., The University of Texas at Dallas, Space Physics, 1978.
- B.A., Murray State University, Majors in Physics, Mathematics and Russian; Minors in Astronomy and Russian History, 1976.
- Leningrad State University, Council for International Educational Exchange, Program for Russian Studies, 1975.
- Director, School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, 2011-present
- Chair, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2009-2010
- Associate Chair, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2008-2009.
- Professor of Planetary Science and Astronomy, 2003-present.
- Associate Professor of Computational Sciences and Physics: 2000-2003.
- Research Physicist: Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC, 1988-2000.
- Adjunct Professor: George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, 1990-1999.
- Research Physicist: Computational Physics, Inc., Annandale, VA, 1987-1988.
- Postdoctoral Fellow: The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1985-1987.
Selected Awards and Honors:
- GMU College of Science, Celebration of Scholarship Award, 2007.
- NASA Group Achievement Award: New Horizons Pluto mission, 2008.
- NASA Group Achievement Award: AIM satellite mission, 2008.
- NASA Group Achievement Award: ARES Mission Concept Development Team, 2006.
- NASA Group Achievement Award: UARS Satellite Science Team, 2005.
- Alan J. Berman Research Publication Award: Naval Research Laboratory, Annual awards given by NRL for the highest quality research publications. Awarded in 1992 and 1998.
- Invited speaker for Herbert Friedman – NRL Lifetime Achievement Symposium. One of five invited speakers that presented talks on the future of science and engineering at NRL. This was on the occasion of the presentation of the Lifetime Achievement Award to Dr. Herbert Friedman in 1996.
- Ford Foundation Scholarship, Exchange Program to the Former Soviet Union, Sponsored by the Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE) in 1975. Scholarship to study Russian language at Leningrad State University (now St. Petersburg). One of 32 participants chosen from the US to participate in this program.
- New Horizons Pluto Mission: Mission Co-Investigator and Science Team Member since 2002, NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt, launched Jan. 19, 2006, flyby of Jupiter in February, 2007. Science team member involved in proposal development, presentation to NASA, spacecraft planning, site visits, EPO activities, etc., Deputy Atmospheres Team Leader. Anticipated Pluto encounter in July, 2015.
- Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere: Mission Co-Investigator and Science Team Member since 2003, NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM), Small Explorer satellite mission to study Polar Mesospheric Clouds and their connection to global climate. Science team member involved in proposal development, presentation to NASA, Group Leader for Atmospheric Chemistry. Launched in May. 2006 with nominal 2 year mission. NASA approved for 3 year extended mission, 2008-2011.
- ARES Mars Airplane: Mission Co-Investigator and Science Team Member, NASA Langley ARES Mars Airplane, Concept and Engineering study for proposed first airplane to fly on another planet. Proposed to 2009 NASA Mars Scout Program, one of four finalists. Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry Lead, involved in many aspects of mission development and mission planning. NASA Langely Research Center, Dr. Joel Levine, PI
- Co-Editor: American Geophysical Union – Chapman Conference Monograph #123, “Atmospheric Science Across the Stratopause”, Eds. D.E. Siskind, S.E. Eckerman, M.E. Summers, American Geophysical Union, Dec. 2000.
- Co-Chair: American Geophysical Union sponsored Chapman Conference, “Atmospheric Science Across the Stratopause” Annapolis, MD, April, 1999.
- Group Leader: Middle Atmospheric Theory program at the Naval Research Laboratory from 1992 to1999.
- Chair: NRL Committee for DoD SERDP (Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program) supercomputer modeling at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 1992-1995.
- Group Leader of two working groups as a part of the CRISTA/MAHRSI (Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere/Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph) space shuttle missions in 1994 and 1997: Photochemical Modeling working group; Mesospheric Tracers working group.
- World Meteorological Organization: Contributor to 1998 Report: Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone.
- Reviewer for the journals: Science, Nature, Icarus, Journal of Geophysical Research, Geophysical Research Letters, The Astrophysical Journal, Astrophysical Journal Letters, and many others.
- NASA review panels: Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), Ionosphere, Thermosphere, and Mesosphere (ITM) program, and the Planetary Atmospheres Review Panel (PATRP).
- American Astronomical Society, Division of Planetary Sciences
- American Geophysical Union
- American Meteorological Society
- The Planetary Society
- American Scientific Affiliation
Summary of research interests:
1) Planetary sciences:
Io, the inner Galilean moon of Jupiter: Supersonic meteorology of the SO2 atmosphere; ionosphere formation; atmospheric escape; atmospheric and surface chemistry; atmospheric sputtering from Jovian magnetospheric plasma; plasma/MHD interactions with the Io plasma torus.
Titan, the largest moon of Saturn: Airglow processes; ionosphere formation; atmospheric chemistry.
Uranus: Hydrocarbon chemistry; aerosol formation; atmospheric transport by dynamics and eddy mixing.
Neptune and Triton: Energetics and thermal structure of Triton’s atmosphere; atmospheric escape; ionospheric processes; atmosphere/magnetosphere interactions; airglow; Triton as a source of molecules for Neptune’s upper atmosphere.
Pluto: Atmospheric energetics and thermal structure; Seasonal variation of the atmosphere; ionospheric formation; hydrodynamic escape of Pluto’s atmosphere; low temperature atmospheric and surface chemistry; mission planning for a NASA Pluto/Charon flyby and extended flybys of 1-2 Kuiper Belt Objects. Capture of Pluto’s atmosphere by Charon.
Astrobiology and Mars: Fate of organic molecules in the atmosphere; atmospheric biomarkers of subsurface life; atmosphere and surface chemistry; evolution of the early Martian atmosphere.
2) The Earth:
Multi-dimensional atmospheric modeling: Coupled modeling of the dynamics, radiation fields, and chemistry in the stratosphere and mesosphere.
Stratospheric and Mesospheric ozone and odd-hydrogen chemistry: Space-based observations of OH and O3; the ozone budget; upper stratospheric ozone and the role of odd-hydrogen chemistry; transport and chemistry of CO.
Influence of solar variability on the state of the stratosphere and mesosphere: Response of ozone and temperature to variations in solar ultraviolet radiation.
Heterogeneous chemistry on meteoric dust: Surface recombination of O, OH, O3 and H2 on meteoritic dust and the influence on the atmospheric water budget; the role of meteoric dust in the formation of noctilucent clouds.
Polar mesospheric clouds: Formation, evolution, and the connection between PMCs and global climate; water budget in the PMC region; NASA AIM satellite mission planning for long-term space-based monitoring of PMCs; the role of meteoric dust and ice particles in hydrogen and oxygen chemistry.
Astrobiology and the evolution of the Earth’s atmosphere: The origin of atmospheric oxygen; radiative-convective models; greenhouse effect; atmospheric changes during snowball episodes.
Commercial Spaceflight Federation: Advisory board member, specific role for planning atmospheric research opportunities from the next generation of suborbital human-tended vehicles, outreach to the professional community, and education.
Over 120 Conference/Meeting presentations, posters or abstracts at national and international conferences, and conference proceedings.
Courses developed at George Mason University:
- PHYS 575/CSI 655 Atmospheric Physics I: Introduction to Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry (1989-present)
- PHYS 676/CSI 755 Atmospheric Physics II: Atmospheric Dynamics (1990-1994)
- ASTR 301 Astrobiology (2001-present)
- ASTR 403 Planetary Sciences (2002-present)
- ASTR 703 Planetary Sciences (2005-present)
- EOS399/PHYS 390 Introduction to Atmospheric Science (now CLIM 111/112-PHYS 111/112) (2007-present)
In addition, directed specialized graduate reading courses in atmospheric chemistry, cloud physics, ionospheric physics, atmospheric tides, evolution of the Earth’s atmosphere, polar stratospheric chemistry, Mars atmospheric evolution.
- Committee for the development of a proposal for a joint CAS/SCS MS in Earth Science
- Committee for the development of an Astrobiology concentration in the Biosciences Ph.D. program.
- Committee for the proposal for an Astronomy BS/BA degree.
- Physics department transfer credit evaluator 2000-2006.
- School of Computational Sciences, Chair of Level-2 Promotion and Tenure Committee, 2002-2006
- Faculty Search Committees (x 8, 4 times as chair)
- Over 200 public talks on science from 2nd grade to senior citizen groups
Current Ph.D. Students:
Jonathan Steidel: Atmospheric water layers and the Influence of Meteoric Dust on the Chemical Structure of the Terrestrial Middle Atmosphere. – will finish Ph.D. in 2008.
Muffarah Jahengeer: Isotopic signatures as a means to identify biogenic vs. geochemical origin of disequilibrium gases on Mars. Currently preparing Ph.D. thesis proposal.
Mary Ewell: Evolution of the Martian atmosphere: UV irradiance effects on potential biological habitats. Theoretical modeling of the early Martian atmosphere and the role of sulfur compounds. Currently preparing Ph.D. thesis proposal.
Dana Ostrenga: Trends in Hurricane dynamics – planning thesis work, finishing up required graduate courses.
Jorge Avilles: Radiative-convective models of the atmospheres of super-Earth type extrasolar planets.
Lonnie Cumberland: Atmospheric biomarkers on solar system and extrasolar planets.
Scott Gries: Atmospheric escape from giant extrasolar planets, i.e. hot Jupiters.
(1) Summers, M.E., Y.L. Yung, and P. K. Haff., A Two-Stage Mechanism for the Escape of Na and K from Io, Nature, 304, 710-712, 1983.
(2) Ingersoll, A.P, M. E. Summers, and S.G. Schlipf. Supersonic Meteorology of Io: Sublimation-Driven Flow of Sulfur Dioxide, Icarus, 64, 375-390, 1985.
(3) Summers, M.E. Theoretical Studies of Io’s Atmosphere, Ph.D. Thesis, The California Institute of Technology, June 1986.
(4) Strobel, D.F., M.E. Summers, R.M. Bevilacqua, M.T. Deland, and M. Allen, Vertical Constituent Transport in the Mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 6691-6698, 1987.
(5) Ballester, G.E., H.W. Moos, P.D. Feldman, D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, J.-L. Bertaux, T.E. Skinner, M.C. Festou, and J.H. Lieske. Detection of Neutral Oxygen and Sulfur Emissions Near Io using IUE, The Astrophysical Journal, 319, L33-L38, 1987.
(6) Summers, M.E., D.F. Strobel, Y.L. Yung, J.T. Trauger, and F. Mills, The Structure of Io’s Atomic Corona and Implications for Atmospheric Escape, The Astrophysical Journal, 343, 468-480, 1989.
(7) Summers, M.E. and D.F. Strobel, Photochemistry of the Atmosphere of Uranus, The Astrophysical Journal, 346, 495-508, 1989.
(8) Zommerfelds, W. C., K.F. Kunzi, M. E. Summers, R.M. Bevilacqua and D. F. Strobel, Diurnal Variations of Mesospheric Ozone obtained by Ground-based Microwave Radiometry, J. Geophys. Res., 94, D10, 12819-12832, 1989.
(9) Bevilacqua, R.M., D. F. Strobel, Summers, M.E., Olivero, J. J., M. Allen, The Seasonal Variation of Water Vapor and Ozone in the Upper Mesosphere: Implications for Vertical Transport and Ozone Photochemistry, J. Geophys. Res., 95, D1, 883-893, 1990.
(10) Strobel, D.F., M.E. Summers, F. Herbert, B.R. Sandal, The Photochemistry of Methane in the Atmosphere of Triton, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, No. 10, 1729-1732, 1990.
(11) Strobel, D.F., M.E. Summers, A. Cheng, Interaction of Triton’s atmosphere with the Neptunian Magnetosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, No. 10, 1661-1664, 1990.
(12) Majeed, T., J.C. McConnell, M.E. Summers, D.F. Strobel, The Ionosphere of Triton, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, No. 10, 1721-1724 1990.
(13) Summers, M.E., D.F. Strobel, R.M. Bevilacqua, X. Zhu, M.T. Deland, M. Allen,
G. M. Keating. The Response of Mesospheric Ozone to Short-Term Solar Ultra-Violet
Flux Variations, J. Geophys. Res., 95, D13, 22,523-22,538,1990.
(14) Strobel, D.F., R.R. Meier, M.E. Summers, D.J. Strickland, Sources of Triton’s Airglow: Comparison with the Earth and Titan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, No 4, 689-692, 1991.
(15) Summers, M.E., D.F. Strobel, Triton’s Atmosphere: A Source of N and H for Neptune’s Magnetosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 2309-2312, 1991.
(16) Zhu, X., M.E. Summers, D.F. Strobel, Analytic Models to Calculate Radiative Absorption of Ozone 9.6 micron Band in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 96, D10, 18,551-18,559, 1991.
(17) Stevens, M.H., D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, R.V. Yelle, On the Thermal Structure of Triton’s Atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, No. 7, 669-672, 1992.
(18) Zhu, X., M.E. Summers, D.F. Strobel, Calculation of CO2 15 micron Band Atmospheric Cooling Rates by Curtis Matrix Interpolation of Correlated-k Coefficients., J. Geophys. Res., 97, D12, 12,787-12,797, 1992.
(19) Strobel, D.F., M.E. Summers, X. Zhu, Titan’s Upper Atmosphere: Structure and Ultraviolet Emissions, Icarus, 100, 512-526, 1993.
(20) Strobel, D.F., D.T. Doyle, X. Zhu, and M.E. Summers, Upper Limit on Titan’s Atmospheric Argon Abundance, Icarus, 103, 333-336, 1993.
(21) Siskind, D.E., M.E. Summers, and M.G. Mlynczak, An Evaluation of O2(b1Sg) as a Possible Source of OH and Odd-Nitrogen in the Stratosphere and Mesosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2047-2050, 1993.
(22). Strobel, D.F., X. Zhu, and M.E. Summers, On the Vertical Structure of Io’s Atmosphere, Icarus, 111, 18-30, 1994.
(23) Bacmeister, J.T., Schoeberl, M., M.E. Summers, D.F. Strobel, J. Rosenfield, and X. Zhu, Descent of Long Lived Trace Gases in the Winter Polar Vortex, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 11669-11684, 1995.
(24) Strobel, D.F. and M.E. Summers, Triton’s Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere invited chapter for the book Neptune and Triton, University of Arizona press, Space Science Series, 1995.
(25) Strobel, D.F., X. Zhu, and M.E. Summers, On the Vertical Thermal Structure of Pluto’s Atmosphere, Icarus, 120, 317, 1996.
(26) Summers, M.E. and D.F. Strobel, Photochemistry and Vertical Transport in Io’s Atmosphere, Icarus, 120, 290-316, 1996.
(27) Lellouch, E., D. F. Strobel, M.J.S. Belton, M.E. Summers, and R. Moreno, Detection of Sulfur Monoxide in Io’s Atmosphere. Ap. J. Letters, 459, L107-L110, 1996.
(28) Summers, M.E., R.R. Conway, D.E. Siskind, R. Bevilacqua, D.F. Strobel, and S. Zasadil, Mesospheric HOx Photochemistry: Constraints from concurrent measurements of OH, H2O, and O3, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23,2097-2100, 1996.
(29) Summers, M.E., D.E. Siskind, J.T. Bacmeister, R.R. Conway, S.E. Zasadil, D.F. Strobel, The Seasonal Variation of Middle Atmosphere CH4 and H2O with a new chemical-dynamical model, Geophys. Res. ett. D3, 3503-3526, 1997.
(30) Siskind, D.E., Bacmeister, M.E. Summers, S. Zasadil, and .M. Russell, III, Two dimensional model calculations of middle atmosphere nitric oxide and comparisons with HALOE data, J. Geophys. Res., 102, D3, 3527-3545, 1997.
(31) Summers, M.E., R.R. Conway, D.E. Siskind, M.H. Stevens, D. Offermann, M. Riese, P. Preusse, D.F. Strobel, and J.M. Russell III, Implications of Satellite OH Observations for Middle Atmopsheric H2O and Ozone, Science, 277, 1967-1970, 1997.
(32) Summers, M. E., D. F. Strobel and R. G. Gladstone, Chemical Models and Constraints on Pluto’s Atmosphere, invited chapter for the book Pluto and Charon, University of Arizona press, Space Science Series, 1998.
(33) Bacmeister, J.T., D.E. Siskind, M.E. Summers, and S. Zasadil, Age-of-air in a zonally averaged two dimensional model, J. Geophys. Res.,103, 11263-11288, 1998.
(34) Siskind, D.E. and M.E. Summers, Implications of Enhanced Mesospheric Water Vapor Observed by HALOE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2133-2136, 1998.
(35) Siskind, D.E. and M.E. Summers, Chemical Eddy Transport by Planetary Waves in the Mesosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 103, 31,321-31,329, 1998.
(36) Summers, M.E. and D.E. Siskind, Surface Recombination of O and H2 on Meteoric Dust as a Source of Mesospheric Water Vapor, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 13, 1837-1840, 1999.
(37) Muller R., et al., Upper Stratospheric Processes, Contributor to Chapter 6 in the WMO Report #44, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, 1999.
(38) Saur, J., F.M. Neubauer, D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, 3D Simulation of Io’s Interaction with the Io-Plasma Torus: Asymmetric Plasma Flow, J. Geophys. Res.,104, 25, 105-25,126, 1999.
(39) Summers, M.E., Editorial, Perspectives in Atmospheric Science: “Vertical Couplings” Science, Vol. 284, 1783-1785, 11 June 1999.
(40) Saur, J., F.M. Neubauer, D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, Using Io’s Aurora to Remotely Sense it’s interaction with the Io Plasma Torus, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2893-2896, 2000.
(41) Englert, C.R., B.A. Schimpf, M. Birk, F. Schreier, R.R. Conway, M.H. Stevens, and M.E. Summers, Measurements of Middle Atmospheric OH with the Improved 2.5 THz Heterodyne, Spectrometer THOMAS: Comparison with Photochemical Models and MAHRSI Observations, AGU Monograph “Atmospheric Science Across the Stratopause”, D.E. Siskind, S.D. Eckermann, M.E. Summers editors, American Geophysical Union, 305-310, 2000.
(42) Summers, M.E. and R.R. Conway, Insights into Mesospheric Hydrogen Chemistry from Analysis of MAHRSI OH Observations, AGU Monograph “Atmospheric Science Across the Stratopause”, D.E. Siskind, S.D. Eckermann, M.E. Summers editors, American Geophysical Union, 117-130, 2000
(43) Englert, C.R., B.A. Schimpf, M. Birk, F. Schreier, M. Krocka, R.G. Nitsche, and R. U. Titz, The 2.5 THz Heterodyne, Spectrometer THOMAS: Measurement of OH in the middle atmosphere and comparison with photochemical model results, J. Geophys. Res.,105, 22,122-22,223, 2000.
(44) Conway, R.R., M.E. Summers, M.H. Stevens, J.G. Cardon, P. Preusse, and D. Offermann, Satellite Observations of Upper Stratospheric and Mesospheric OH: The HOx Dilemma, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2613-2616, 2000.
(45) Hervig, M., E. Thompson, M. McHugh, L. Gordley, J. Russell III, and M. Summers, First Confirmation that Water Ice is the Primary Component of Polar Mesospheric Clouds, Geophys. Ress. Lett., 28, 971-974, 2001.
(46) Summers, M.E., R.R. Conway, C.R. Englert, D.E. Siskind, M.H. Stevens, J.M. Russell III, L.L. Gordley, M.J. McHugh, Discovery of a Water Vapor Layer in the Arctic Summer Mesosphere, Geophys, Res. Lett., 28, 3601-3604, 2001.
(47) Stevens, M.H., R.R. Conway, C.R. Englert, M.E. Summers, K. Grossman, Oleg. A. Gusev, PMCs and the water frost point in the Arctic summer mesosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, No. 23, 4449-4452, 2001.
(48) Siskind, D.E., G.E. Nedoluha, and M.E. Summers, A Search for an Anticorrelation between H2O and O3 in the Lower Mesosphere, Submitted to J. Geophys. Res., June, 2001.
(49) Saur, J. F.M. Neubauer, D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, Interpretation of Galileo’s Io Plasma and Field Observations: The J0, I24, I27 flybys, and close polar passes, J. Geophys. Res., 107, A12, Dec, 2002.
(50) Summers, M.E., B.J. Lieb, C. Chapman, Y.L. Yung, Atmospheric Biomarkers of Subsurface Life on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (24), Dec. 20, 2002.
(51) Saur, J., D.F. Strobel, F.M. Neubauer, M.E. Summers, The ion mass loading rate at Io, Icarus, 163 (2), 456-468, June, 2003.
(52) Siskind, D.E., G.E. Nedoluha, and M.E. Summers, A Search for an Anticorrelation between H2O and O3 in the Lower Mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 107, D20, Sept. 2002.
(53) Hervig, M., M. McHugh, and M. E. Summers, Water Vapor Enhancements in the Polar Summer Mesosphere and its relationship to Polar Mesospheric Clouds, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vo.l. 30, 2041-2044, 2003.
(54) Nair, H., M.E. Summers, C.E. Miller, Y.L. Yung, Isotopic fractionation of methane in the martian atmosphere, Icarus, 175, 32-35, 2005.
(55) Sahoo, A. Sakar, S., R.P. Singh, A. Sahoo, M. Kafatos, and M.E. Summers, Declining trend of total ozone column over the northern parts of India, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 26, No. 16, 3433-3440, 2005.
(56) Allen, M., Sherwood-Lollar, B., Runnegar, B., Lyons, J., Manning, C., Summers, M., Is Mars Alive? EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 87, No. 41, pp. 433, 2006.
(57) Tyler, G.L, I.R. Linscott, M.K. Bird, D.P. Hinson, D.F. Strobel, M. Patzold, M.E. Summers, The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment, Space Science Reviews, in press.
(58) Young, L.A. et al., New Horizons: Anticipated Scientific Investigations at the Pluto System, Space Science Reviews, in press.
(59) McDonald, S., Summers, M.E., Dymond, K., Meier, R.R., Hemispheric Asymmetries in Ionospheric Anomalies J. Geophysical Res., 113, A08308, doi:10.1029/2007JA012876, 2008.
(60) J.M. Russell et al., The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Mission: Overview and early science results, J. Atmos. Solar-Terrestr. Phys., in press 2009.
(61) Arshad, M., Gomez, R.B., Falconer, A., Roper, W.E., Summers, M.E., A remote sensing technique detecting and identifying water activity sites along irrigation canals,
Submitted to The 1st international conference on Aerospace Science & Engineering Technology
(62) Yong Xie, Xiaoxiong Xiong, John J. Qu, Nianzeng Che, and Michael E. Summers, Impact analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectro-radiometer spatial mis-registration on level 1B measurements and selected science data products, submitted to the International Journal of Remote Sensing.